Contact Information
Research Team
Name Position Office Phone Email
PhD (DPhil) University of Oxford
BSc & ARCS Imperial College London
2024 – Present Assistant Professor, FHS, University of Macau
2021 – 2023 Lecturer (UM Macao Fellow), FHS, University of Macau
2018 – 2020 Lecturer, Doctoral Training Centre, University of Oxford
2017 – 2019 Tutor, University College, University of Oxford
Research Interests
My research is in systems biology and mathematical physiology, constructing mathematical and computational models to describe biological and physiological processes. I use mathematical models of cardiac electrophysiology and uncertainty quantification techniques such as Bayesian modelling and machine learning for studying pharmaceutical drug safety, translation, drug discovery, and personalised medicine. See also https://chonlei.github.io/.
Representative Publications

  1. Lei, C.L., Whittaker, D.G. and Mirams, G. R. (2023). “The impact of uncertainty in hERG binding mechanism on in silico predictions of drug-induced proarrhythmic risk.” bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.03.14.532553.
  2. Cresswell, R., . . . , Lei, C.L., Tavener, S., Robinson, M. and Gavaghan, D.J. (2023). “Understanding the impact of numerical solvers on inference for differential equation models.” arXiv. https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.00749.
  3. Shuttleworth, J.G., Lei, C.L., Whittaker, D.G. et al. (2023). “Empirical quantification of predictive uncertainty due to model discrepancy by training with an ensemble of experimental designs: an application to ion channel kinetics.” arXiv. https://arxiv.org/abs/2302.02942
  4. Foster, T., Lei, C.L., Robinson, M., et al. (2020). “Model Evidence with Fast Tree Based Quadrature.” arXiv. https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.11300
  5. Creswell, R., Lambert, B., Lei, C.L., et al. (2020). “Using flexible noise models to avoid noise model misspecification in inference of differential equation time series models.” arXiv. https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.04854


Peer-reviewed journal articles

  1. Lei, C.L., Ng, H.M. et al. (2023). “What we learned from lifting COVID-19 restrictions in Macao in December 2022.” International Journal of Biological Sciences. (accepted.)
  2. Lei, C.L.#, Clerx, M., Gavaghan, D.J. and Mirams, G. R. (2023). “Model-driven optimal experimental design for calibrating cardiac electrophysiology models.” Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 107690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2023.107690.
  3. Ng, H.M.*, Lei, C.L.*, Fu, S.* et al. (2023). “Heterologous vaccination with inactivated vaccine and mRNA vaccine augments antibodies against both spike and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2: a local study in Macao.” Frontiers in Immunology, 14:1131985. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2023.1131985.
  4. Farm, H.J., …, Gavaghan, D.J. and Lei, C.L.# (2023). “Importance of modelling hERG binding in predicting drug-induced action potentials for drug safety assessment.” Frontiers in Pharmacology, 14:1110555. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2023.1110555
  5. Tam, B., Qin, Z., Zhao, B, Wang, S.M. and Lei, C.L.# (2023). “Integration of deep learning with Ramachandran plot molecular dynamics simulation for genetic variant classification.” iScience, 106122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2023.106122
  6. Lambert, B., Lei, C.L., Robinson, M., et al. (2023). “Autocorrelated measurement processes and inference for ordinary differential equation models of biological systems.” J. R. Soc. Interface, 20: 20220725. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2022.0725
  7. Clark, A.P., Clerx, M., Wei, S., Lei, C.L., et al. (2023). “Leak current, even with gigaohm seals, can cause misinterpretation of stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte action potential recordings.” EP Europace. (accepted; preprint: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.10.13.511949)
  8. Creswell, R., …, Lei, C.L. and Lambert, B. (2023). “A Bayesian nonparametric method for detecting rapid changes in disease transmission.” Journal of Theoretical Biology, 558, 111351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2022.111351
  9. Lei, I.M., Sheng, Y., Lei, C.L. et al. (2022). “A hackable, multi-functional, and modular extrusion 3D printer for soft materials.” Scientific Reports, 12, 12294. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-16008-6
  10. van der Vegt, S.A., …, Lei, C.L., Gavaghan, D.J. and Lambert, B. (2022). “Learning transmission dynamics modelling of COVID-19 using comomodels.” Mathematical Biosciences, 349, 108824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2022.108824
  11. Lei, C.L.# and Mirams, G.R. (2021). “Neural Network Differential Equations For Ion Channel Modelling.” Frontiers in Physiology, 12:708944. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.708944
  12. Lei, C.L.#, Fabbri, A., Whittaker D.G. et al. (2021). “A nonlinear and time-dependent leak current in the presence of calcium fluoride patch clamp seal enhancer [version 2; peer review: 4 approved].” Wellcome Open Research, 5:152. https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15968.2
  13. Lei, I.M., Chen, J., Lei, C.L. et al. (2021). “3D printed biomimetic cochleae and machine learning co-modelling provides clinical informatics for cochlear implant patients.” Nature Communications, 12, 6260. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26491-6
  14. Meng, Y., …, Lei, C.L., Liu, W., Ge, W., Lu, L. and Chen, G. (2021). “Nicotinamide promotes cardiomyocyte derivation and survival through kinase inhibition in human pluripotent stem cells.” Cell Death & Disease, 12, 1119. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04395-z
  15. Lei, C.L., Ghosh, S., Whittaker, D.G., et al. (2020). “Considering discrepancy when calibrating a mechanistic electrophysiology model.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 378: 20190349. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2019.0349
  16. Lei, C.L.#, Clerx, M., Whittaker, D.G., et al. (2020). “Accounting for variability in ion current recordings using a mathematical model of artefacts in voltage-clamp experiments.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 378: 20190348. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2019.0348
  17. Clayton, R.H., Aboelkassem, T., Cantwell, C.D., Corrado, C., Delhaas, T., Huberts, W., Lei, C.L., et al. (2020). “An audit of uncertainty in multi-scale cardiac electrophysiology models.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 378: 20190335. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2019.0335
  18. Whittaker, D.G., Clerx, M., Lei, C.L., et al. (2020). “Calibration of ionic and cellular cardiac electrophysiology” WIREs Syst. Biol. Med., e1482. https://doi.org/10.1002/wsbm.1482
  19. Lei, C.L., Clerx, M., Beattie, K.A., et al. (2019). “Rapid Characterization of hERG Channel Kinetics II: Temperature Dependence.” Biophysical Journal, 117, 12, p.2455-2470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2019.07.030
  20. Lei, C.L., Clerx, M., Gavaghan, D.J., et al. (2019). “Rapid Characterization of hERG Channel Kinetics I: Using an Automated High-Throughput System.” Biophysical Journal, 117, 12, p.2438-2454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2019.07.029
  21. Clerx, M., Robinson, M., Lambert, B., Lei, C.L., et al. (2019). “Probabilistic Inference on Noisy Time Series (PINTS).” Journal of Open Research Software, 7(1), p.23. https://doi.org/10.5334/jors.252
  22. Lei, C.L., Kellard, J., Hara, M., Johnson, J., Rodriguez, B. and Briant, L. (2018). “Beta-cell hubs maintain Ca2+ oscillations in human and mouse islet simulations.” Islets, 10(4): 151-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/19382014.2018.1493316
  23. Lei, C.L., Wang, K., Clerx, M., Johnstone, R.H., et al. (2017). “Tailoring Mathematical Models to Stem-Cell Derived Cardiomyocyte Lines Can Improve Predictions of Drug-Induced Changes to Their Electrophysiology.” Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 986. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00986


Conference proceedings

  1. Camporesi, M., Bartolucci, C., Lei, C.L., et al. (2020). “Development, Implementation and Testing of a Multicellular Dynamic Action Potential Clamp Simulator for Drug Cardiac Safety Assessment.” Computing in Cardiology 2020, Vol. 47. https://doi.org/10.22489/CinC.2020.416


* Co-first authors; # Corresponding author.

2022 Macau Symposium on Biomedical Sciences Best Poster Award
2020 Biophysical Society Travel Award
2018 Safety Pharmacology Society Travel Award
2018 Biophysical Society Best Poster Award
2018 Models to Decisions Conference Best Poster Award
2016 Clarendon Fund Scholarship
2013 Macau Foundation’s Special Scholarship
Professional Activities

  • Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics
  • Frontiers in Medical Technology
  • Frontiers in Oncology
  • Journal of Micro-Bio Robotics
  • Journal of Physiology
  • PLoS Computational Biology
  • Scientific Reports
  • Royal Society Open Science

  • Biophysical Society
  • Society for Mathematical Biology
  • Safety Pharmacology Society

  • Judge of Competition for Development of Innovation Potential of Youths (潛能拓展創新菁英賽)
  • Judge of Macao Youth Innovation Challenge (全澳青少年(學界)創新挑戰賽)

Research Grants
2023 – 2024 University of Macau, Multi-Year Research Grant, General Research Grant (Level 2) [MYRG2022-00023-FHS]
Aiding clinical application for comprehensive annotation of cancer predisposition genes through artificial intelligence and molecular dynamics simulations
2022 – 2024 FDCT, General Scientific Research Funding [0048/2022/A]
Virtual patch clamp: A web application to simulate patch-clamp experiments for deciphering experimental uncertainty